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#3319856 - 03/31/23 08:56 AM Pup Rearing
DoubleUp Offline
Die Hard Member with a vengeance

Registered: 12/18/10
Posts: 4582
Loc: USA
I know some ranchers want every coyote killed. Lots of hunters, myself included don't like the thought of killing a female coyote that has pups in the den. Some few hunters will go to great lengths not to let those pups starve, but find the den and kill the pups rather than letting them starve.

My question is this, will a female continue to raise pups if the male is killed? We hunt through the denning season, but seldom kill a pregnant or nursing female. We hunt entirely at night and our stands are well out in the open most of the time. I believe that is one reason why we don't see many females that far away from the denning area, but I do wonder if the female just abandons the pups if she has to do it alone. Perhaps the age of the pups plays into whether she will continue to raise them. Does anyone know for sure?
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He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision. Psalm 2:4




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#3319863 - 03/31/23 11:01 AM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: DoubleUp]
Coyotejunki Offline
PM senior

Registered: 04/03/04
Posts: 5326
Loc: MO
I have always been told that if the male is killed, then the female HAS to do both roles, raise and care for the pups, and gather the food, she has no choice, I guess other than abandon them. Also if the male is taken out, the female may go for easier prey, such as dogs, cats, whatever.

Maybe one of the experts will weigh in and give us the real scoop.
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#3319880 - 03/31/23 01:39 PM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: DoubleUp]
DoubleUp Offline
Die Hard Member with a vengeance

Registered: 12/18/10
Posts: 4582
Loc: USA
Thanks for the reply Sir, and you're close enough to "an expert" for me.
_________________________
Glow Bull Warming:
He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision. Psalm 2:4




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#3319884 - 03/31/23 02:04 PM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: Coyotejunki]
hm1996 Offline
Moderator

Registered: 07/23/06
Posts: 17948
Loc: S. Texas
Originally Posted By: limbhanger10
...the website in previous post is anti-hunting FYI


Thanks for the heads up, limbhanger. I picked the first result of a google search and saw the rehab pages on their site only. After searching all pages on their site found their antihunting page. ETA different source:

Quote:

Social and reproductive behaviors
Mearns' coyote (C. l. mearnsi) pups playing
A pack of coyotes in Yellowstone National Park

Like the Eurasian golden jackal, the coyote is gregarious, but not as dependent on conspecifics as more social canid species like wolves are. This is likely because the coyote is not a specialized hunter of large prey as the latter species is.[81] The basic social unit of a coyote pack is a family containing a reproductive female. However, unrelated coyotes may join forces for companionship, or to bring down prey too large to attack singly. Such "nonfamily" packs are only temporary, and may consist of bachelor males, nonreproductive females and subadult young. Families are formed in midwinter, when females enter estrus.[22] Pair bonding can occur 2–3 months before actual copulation takes place.[82]

The copulatory tie can last 5–45 minutes.[83] A female entering estrus attracts males by scent marking[84] and howling with increasing frequency.[23] A single female in heat can attract up to seven reproductive males, which can follow her for as long as a month. Although some squabbling may occur among the males, once the female has selected a mate and copulates, the rejected males do not intervene, and move on once they detect other estrous females.[22] Unlike the wolf, which has been known to practice both monogamous and bigamous matings,[85] the coyote is strictly monogamous, even in areas with high coyote densities and abundant food.[86]

Females that fail to mate sometimes assist their sisters or mothers in raising their pups, or join their siblings until the next time they can mate. The newly mated pair then establishes a territory and either constructs their own den or cleans out abandoned badger, marmot, or skunk earths. During the pregnancy, the male frequently hunts alone and brings back food for the female. The female may line the den with dried grass or with fur pulled from her belly.[22] The gestation period is 63 days, with an average litter size of six, though the number fluctuates depending on coyote population density and the abundance of food.[23]

Coyote pups are born in dens, hollow trees, or under ledges, and weigh 200 to 500 g (0.44 to 1.10 lb) at birth. They are altricial, and are completely dependent on milk for their first 10 days. The incisors erupt at about 12 days, the canines at 16, and the second premolars at 21. Their eyes open after 10 days, by which point the pups become increasingly more mobile, walking by 20 days, and running at the age of six weeks. The parents begin supplementing the pup's diet with regurgitated solid food after 12–15 days. By the age of four to six weeks, when their milk teeth are fully functional, the pups are given small food items such as mice, rabbits, or pieces of ungulate carcasses, with lactation steadily decreasing after two months.[22]

Unlike wolf pups, coyote pups begin seriously fighting (as opposed to play fighting) prior to engaging in play behavior. A common play behavior includes the coyote "hip-slam".[74] By three weeks of age, coyote pups bite each other with less inhibition than wolf pups. By the age of four to five weeks, pups have established dominance hierarchies, and are by then more likely to play rather than fight.[87] The male plays an active role in feeding, grooming, and guarding the pups, but abandons them if the female goes missing before the pups are completely weaned. The den is abandoned by June to July, and the pups follow their parents in patrolling their territory and hunting. Pups may leave their families in August, though can remain for much longer. The pups attain adult dimensions at eight months and gain adult weight a month later.[22]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coyote


Regards,
hm


Edited by hm1996 (04/01/23 01:13 PM)
_________________________
If what's ahead scares you & what's behind hurts you,look up; He never fails you.

If My people will humble themselves, pray, seek My face & turn from their wicked ways, I will hear from heaven & will forgive their sin & heal their land. 2 Chron 7:14




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#3319905 - 03/31/23 05:30 PM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: DoubleUp]
limbhanger10 Offline
Seasoned Member

Registered: 11/15/09
Posts: 355
Loc: N-W PA.
...the website in previous post is anti-hunting FYI
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#3320140 - 04/03/23 12:41 PM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: limbhanger10]
hm1996 Offline
Moderator

Registered: 07/23/06
Posts: 17948
Loc: S. Texas
Thanks, limbhanger, fixed it.

Regards,
hm
_________________________
If what's ahead scares you & what's behind hurts you,look up; He never fails you.

If My people will humble themselves, pray, seek My face & turn from their wicked ways, I will hear from heaven & will forgive their sin & heal their land. 2 Chron 7:14




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#3320255 - 04/04/23 05:19 PM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: DoubleUp]
limbhanger10 Offline
Seasoned Member

Registered: 11/15/09
Posts: 355
Loc: N-W PA.
thumbup
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#3322772 - 05/23/23 04:45 AM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: hm1996]
1oldcoyote Offline
Seasoned Member

Registered: 03/18/22
Posts: 130
Loc: Central plains
Originally Posted By: hm1996
Originally Posted By: limbhanger10
...the website in previous post is anti-hunting FYI


Thanks for the heads up, limbhanger. I picked the first result of a google search and saw the rehab pages on their site only. After searching all pages on their site found their antihunting page. ETA different source:

Quote:

Social and reproductive behaviors
Mearns' coyote (C. l. mearnsi) pups playing
A pack of coyotes in Yellowstone National Park

Like the Eurasian golden jackal, the coyote is gregarious, but not as dependent on conspecifics as more social canid species like wolves are. This is likely because the coyote is not a specialized hunter of large prey as the latter species is.[81] The basic social unit of a coyote pack is a family containing a reproductive female. However, unrelated coyotes may join forces for companionship, or to bring down prey too large to attack singly. Such "nonfamily" packs are only temporary, and may consist of bachelor males, nonreproductive females and subadult young. Families are formed in midwinter, when females enter estrus.[22] Pair bonding can occur 2–3 months before actual copulation takes place.[82]

The copulatory tie can last 5–45 minutes.[83] A female entering estrus attracts males by scent marking[84] and howling with increasing frequency.[23] A single female in heat can attract up to seven reproductive males, which can follow her for as long as a month. Although some squabbling may occur among the males, once the female has selected a mate and copulates, the rejected males do not intervene, and move on once they detect other estrous females.[22] Unlike the wolf, which has been known to practice both monogamous and bigamous matings,[85] the coyote is strictly monogamous, even in areas with high coyote densities and abundant food.[86]

Females that fail to mate sometimes assist their sisters or mothers in raising their pups, or join their siblings until the next time they can mate. The newly mated pair then establishes a territory and either constructs their own den or cleans out abandoned badger, marmot, or skunk earths. During the pregnancy, the male frequently hunts alone and brings back food for the female. The female may line the den with dried grass or with fur pulled from her belly.[22] The gestation period is 63 days, with an average litter size of six, though the number fluctuates depending on coyote population density and the abundance of food.[23]

Coyote pups are born in dens, hollow trees, or under ledges, and weigh 200 to 500 g (0.44 to 1.10 lb) at birth. They are altricial, and are completely dependent on milk for their first 10 days. The incisors erupt at about 12 days, the canines at 16, and the second premolars at 21. Their eyes open after 10 days, by which point the pups become increasingly more mobile, walking by 20 days, and running at the age of six weeks. The parents begin supplementing the pup's diet with regurgitated solid food after 12–15 days. By the age of four to six weeks, when their milk teeth are fully functional, the pups are given small food items such as mice, rabbits, or pieces of ungulate carcasses, with lactation steadily decreasing after two months.[22]

Unlike wolf pups, coyote pups begin seriously fighting (as opposed to play fighting) prior to engaging in play behavior. A common play behavior includes the coyote "hip-slam".[74] By three weeks of age, coyote pups bite each other with less inhibition than wolf pups. By the age of four to five weeks, pups have established dominance hierarchies, and are by then more likely to play rather than fight.[87] The male plays an active role in feeding, grooming, and guarding the pups, but abandons them if the female goes missing before the pups are completely weaned. The den is abandoned by June to July, and the pups follow their parents in patrolling their territory and hunting. Pups may leave their families in August, though can remain for much longer. The pups attain adult dimensions at eight months and gain adult weight a month later.[22]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coyote


Regards,
hm


I disagree with some of the above opinions/findings. For starters, a territorial pair of coyotes only hunt as a family group, alone or with their mate. They do not "invite". Non-related coyotes into their group. In order to hunt large prey.

Also the pups of that year. Do not leave during the summer or fall.
_________________________
My only interest is wild canine Biology & Behaviors.

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#3322785 - 05/23/23 12:24 PM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: 1oldcoyote]
doggin coyotes Offline
PM Junkie

Registered: 02/18/02
Posts: 10574
Loc: Colorado
Originally Posted By: 1oldcoyote

Also the pups of that year. Do not leave during the summer or fall.


What do you consider fall? Around here, in Sept, you won't see pups with adults. We kinda consider Sept the beginning of fall in these parts. smile
_________________________
Colorado has smelled like one big azz brush fire every since 1-1-14.

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#3322799 - 05/23/23 04:47 PM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: DoubleUp]
K-22hornet. Offline
Die Hard Member II

Registered: 11/06/03
Posts: 1757
Loc: Colorado
A few years ago, I was muzzle hunting Elk in Unit 11, which is Mid-September for non-Coloradans.

Early one morning, I see a coyote trotting my way in the valley. I start to get my ever-present Sceery call out, and I hear several barks from the opposite ridge before I can make a sound.

The coyote in the valley immediately runs uphill to the barker and has a submissive posture. It looked like the barker threw up and the other one ate. After that, they went their separate ways.

I'm convinced it was parent-pup interaction.

It was cool to see.
_________________________
Liberals are the most highly educated, stupid people I've ever met!

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#3323026 - 05/31/23 06:00 AM Re: Pup Rearing [Re: doggin coyotes]
1oldcoyote Offline
Seasoned Member

Registered: 03/18/22
Posts: 130
Loc: Central plains
Originally Posted By: doggin coyotes
Originally Posted By: 1oldcoyote

Also the pups of that year. Do not leave during the summer or fall.


What do you consider fall? Around here, in Sept, you won't see pups with adults. We kinda consider Sept the beginning of fall in these parts. smile


North central plains area; What I have observed from one older pair of territorial coyotes is. Their young typically stay with in the parents boundrys or on the peripheral fringe/overlap areas. Come December or the latter part thereof. Those young will be scattered or dispersed. I believe the dispersal driving force. Happens when the old female comes into heat.
_________________________
My only interest is wild canine Biology & Behaviors.

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